The Cataract is an ocular pathology characterized by the clouding of the eye’s natural lens; the clouding is usually a physiological condition linked to aging.
In some cases the cataract occurs in infants t and takes the name of congenital cataract, whose incidence is 3:10,000 infants and in two thirds it is bilateral. Congenital cataracts develop in infants for many reasons that can include hereditary tendencies, infections, metabolic problems, diabetes, traumas, inflammations or reactions to drugs.
Many systemic pediatric conditions can be associated to the presence of congenital cataract: inter alia the galactosemia, Lowe Syndrome (ocular cerebral renal syndrome), the hyperthyroidism, pseudohypertyroidism, Fabry disease, hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia.
The intrauterine infections mainly involved are rubella, toxoplasmosis, chickenpox, Cytomegalovirus infection and Herpes Simplex virus contracted during the intrauterine life.